The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified
in 1865, says “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall
exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
Democratic state legislatures swiftly passed “Black Codes” in order to achieve
a “slavery” loophole that made minimal offenses and petty crimes such as
loitering, breaking curfew or vagrancy, cause for arrest and a substantial
fine. Blacks could not pay the fines, were transferred to the violent and
abusive system known as convict leasing
Convict leasing was a profitable deal for Southern
governments because renting convicts to various private businesses like coal mining,
railroads, and logging companies, required the lessees to provide housing,
feeding, and clothing to the prisoners. Also,
the leasing of convicts provided generous financial support to the state. In
return, plantations and corporations were provided with cheap labor.
This system of prison labor would continue until the 1940s.
Ida B. Wells, an early anti-lynching advocate who virtually
worked alone, exposed the unspeakable brutality of a violent mob with their
“unwritten law” that justified putting human beings to death by lynching. Wells
documented the history of lynching in the goldfields of the far West. The thief
or the man who jumped a claim and other outlaws tried, and if found guilty,
were hanged under a tree where the court convened. But what happened in the
South by the end of the Civil War and during Reconstruction, was an entirely
different situation. She demanded that lynching end, that it was a federal
crime and required a federal remedy.
Southern Democrats had successfully established Jim Crow
Laws throughout the South and repressed black leadership
Southern Democrats used frequent lynchings to intimidate, suppress, and nullify blacks’ right to vote. This “unwritten law” was used to accuse blacks of rape against white women or bumping into a white person – anything Southern Democrats wanted to charge a black for to return white supremacy to the South. By the time of the collapse of Reconstruction, Southern Democrats had successfully established Jim Crow Laws throughout the South and repressed black leadership. Wells continued her prominent anti-lynching campaign for forty years urging Presidents William McKinley to President Woodrow Wilson to outlaw the practice of lynching. She became the most prominent opponent of lynching in the United States and garnered an essential ally in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Unsuccessful efforts to stop lynchings in America would continue during FDR’s administration and not until President Truman, did the Democrats pass an anti-lynching bill in 1946. However, lynchings would continue through 1967 along with Jim Crow laws and brutality for blacks and other whites that supported them.
Before the Civil War, blacks learned the building trade to benefit their owners, but after the Civil War, they passed their skills to their children and these budding architects would eventually attend school and lead the way for other black architects. One of these pioneer architects, Robert R. Taylor (1868 – 1942), became the first accredited black architect and a graduate of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1892. Booker T. Washington recruited him to establish the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Later, the school of architecture would be named the Robert R. Taylor School of Architecture and Construction Science (TSACS).
Other architects would follow such as Wallace A. Rayfield (1873 – 1941), Moses McKissack III (1879 – 1952), and Julian Abel (1881 – 1950). Many of these architects did not sign
their work and did not receive credit for their efforts. Julian Abel was not given credit in his lifetime for the beautiful
works of art on the Duke University campus such as the gothic Duke University
Chapel. At the time he designed these buildings for the campus, Duke was a
whites-only university. It would be the 1980s until Abel was given credit for his work at Duke University and in 2016,
Duke named a campus quad after him. Rayfield
was the second formally trained black architect and his buildings played an essential
role in the Civil Rights Movement; his 16th Street Baptist Church
(completed in 1911) was the site of the 1963 bomb that killed four black
teenage girls. McKissack III established
one of the earliest black-architecture firms in the U.S., today the firm,
McKissack & McKissack managed the building of the National Museum of
African American History and Culture in Washington D.C.
Norma Merrick Sklarek
(1928 -2012) called the “Rosa Parks of architecture,” was one of the first black
women in architecture; she co-founded one of the first women-architectural firms,
Siegel-Sklarek-Diamond in 1985, with two other women-architects, Margot Siegel (1925 – ) and Katherine Diamond (1954 – ).
The twentieth century would include Paul R. Williams (1894 – 1980), the architect of the stars as well
as designing the LAX Theme Building, and a significant architect for the city
of Long Beach, California. J. Max Bond ( 1935 – 2009) who was also
involved with the National Museum of African American History and Culture; and Marshall Purnell (1950 – ) considered
one of the most accomplished architects in United States today with projects
that include Washington Convention Center, Washington Nationals Baseball Park,
Washington NBA and NHL Venue Verizon Center, and the National Martin Luther
In 1930, there were only 60 registered black architects, but today, there are more than 2,278.
Dwight D. Eisenhower, elected in 1952, was mindful of the southern Democratic congressional commitment to racial segregation, but he was determined to eliminate racial discrimination in all areas of his authority. Some historians write that the President was not known for his support of the civil rights movement, but his ability to respond to problems and lead the Nation is remarkable. Here is what he accomplished during his administration:
Created the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, April 11, 1953
Appointed Chief Justice Earl Warren to the Supreme Court in 1954, Who Wrote the First Major Decision of the Warren Court, Brown v. Board of Education
Issued Executive Orders to Halt Segregation in Washington D.C.
July 7, 1954, Appointed Elbert Tuttle, U.S. Court of Appeals (Fifth Circuit), Who Ended Segregation at University of Mississippi for James Meredith as Well as Many Other Cases in the South
Appointed First Black, Frederic Morrow, to the Executive Staff of the White House From 1955 – 1961
Civil Rights Act of 1957, Creates the Civil Rights Division in the Justice Department
Sent 101st Airborne to Little Rock, Arkansas to Restore Order and Allow the Little Rock 9 to Desegregate the School
Met with Black Leaders in 1958 to Discuss Plans to Advance Civil Rights
Civil Rights Act of 1960 Which Further Addressed the Voting Rights of Black Americans
Received Robert S. Abbott Award From the Publisher of the ChicagoDefender, John H. Sengstake, Nephew of Robert S. Abbott
President Eisenhower was the first president since Reconstruction to use federal troops to support blacks, but he did so with criticism on both sides of the aisle; those who felt he did not do enough for blacks and others who thought that asserting federal power over states’ rights was wrong.
During the Eisenhower Administration, landmark events shaped
the Civil Rights Movement in the 20th Century. Eight years after the 1954 unanimous ruling
of Brown v. Board of Education, the Southern Manifesto (1956), signed by more
than 100 Democratic Congressmen, resisted school desegregation with open
defiance and violence. Democrats intensified their illegal oppression of blacks
in the South because desegregation was not federally implemented and had no
Democratic Southern governors, mayors, senators, members of
Congress, and members of the law enforcement, all obstructed the civil rights
agenda. Democratic governors James Davis (LA), Orville Faubus (AR), George
Wallace (GA), Ross Barnett (MS), and senators Strom Thurman (SC), Robert Byrd
(WV) and Richard Russell (GA) led the violent resistance. (Richard Russell Senate Building is named
One of Richard Nixon’s first essential issues that confronted his administration was the successful desegregation of southern schools. The Johnson administration left Nixon with 68% of blacks in all-black schools, but by the end of Nixon’s first term, this statistic was only 8% of blacks attended all-black schools. It took 18 years to finally implement school desegregation in the South after the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954.
Homer B. Roberts was a WWI veteran and an electrical
engineer. Not only was he the first black American car dealer but was also one
of the first black retailing giants.
He created a cutting-edge campaign of “class and distinction almost describes our cars and customers” in the 1920s that preceded the Duesenberg elegant men and women campaign in the 1930s. Roberts knew that marketing the feeling of driving a car sold by him was as important as the car itself. He was a marketing genius.
Did you know that blacks served among crews on whaling ships before the American Revolution? Did you know that Crispus Attucks spent 20 years as a whaler before he was the first casualty at the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770? Crispus was a fugitive slave from Framingham, Massachusetts who was on leave from the Nantucket vessel, Lorenzo J. Green, before losing his life as the first patriot at the Boston Massacre.
Before the turn of the century, the maritime industry provided the most significant opportunities for employment more than any other industry in America as blacks were paid equally if skilled. Many blacks served at the dangerous job as harpooners but few as mates (officers) and even more rare as a Captain. Blacks made up one fourth to one third of the whaling crews. Racism was not absent, but blacks made a decent wage and received a certain amount of respect as a whaler. After the Civil War, coal and petroleum began to displace whale oil and more and more black whalers would lose these jobs.